Routing protocols is based on where they are used between two solutions:
- Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP)
- Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP)
- Open Shortest Path First (OSPF),
- Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP, Cisco proprietary protocol),
- Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS).
- Routing Information Protocol (RIP),
- Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
IGPs are designed to work in private networks.
EGPs are used to provide paths in the public network (Internet).
- Distance Vector (DV, aka Bellman-Ford) RIP , EIGRP ( using DUAL Diffusing Update ALgorithm )
Routers do not know the topology of the network
Routers advertise their full routing table periodically
Routers perform automatic summarization
No VLSM support
Routers are slow to converge
Routers use simple metric
The Distance Vector algorithm uses techniques to prevent rooting loops and infinity count :
- Triggered Update (aka flash update)
- Route Poisoning
- Maximum Metric (RIP considers max 15 hops ,16 hops as inaccessible)
- Poison Reverse
- Hold-Down Timer
- Link-State : OSPF ( Dijkstra’s algorithm ), IS-IS.
- Path Vector BGP